Glossary:

Broad Reach:

A point of sail between running and beam reaching, when the wind is over one of the stern quarters.

 

Drogue or Sea-Anchor:

A device intended to produce drag through the water, slowing or stopping the drift of a boat. Available in many sizes and types.

 

Fisherman:

Fisherman Staysail: Four-sided sail set aloft, between the masts. A great sail for light winds and for light-moderate downwind conditions, as there is more wind higher up than near the deck. Two halyards (peak halyard goes to the top of the mainmast, throat halyard goes to the top of the foremast, a tack downhaul and the sheets run through a block on the mainboom. Originally, on fishing schooners, nets were hung aloft between the masts to dry, later they put a sail in that space and called it a fisherman.

Fisherman Anchor: Also called a Herreshoff or Yachtsman (though to be precise, these are subtly different). Very reliable anchor in bottoms other than very soft stuff. Orbit has an 80lb fisherman, usually kept on the bowsprit, that folds and is stored below when going offshore.

 

Foresail:

The gaff-rigged sail set off the foremast (forward-most mast). On a schooner, this is typically the sail that gets the most use...often the first one up and usually the last one down. It's position in the center of the boat means it doesn't have much effect on steering...unlike the mainsail, which (being aft) always tends to be pushing the boat up into the wind (weather helm).

 

Heave To:

Heaving to is a way of effectively stopping the boat in the water, using sails or a combination of sails and warps (ropes) or sails and sea anchors. The boat makes little or no forward motion, and drifts slowly to leeward (downwind). The motion of the boat is much easier when hove-to, and it is useful both as a means of stopping long enough to do a repair or cook a meal, as well as a storm tactic. When used as a storm tactic, it results in much less heeling and rolling than would be involved in lying ahull or running, and the slow downwind drift seems to produce a slick to windward which discourages waves from breaking on top of the boat.

Full-keeled boats like Orbit tend to heave to easily. What sails are used, and what helm position is used varies. In light to moderate winds, backing the jib is often enough to heave-to. In heavy winds, the foresail can be set (reefed or whole) and the wheel lashed to windward, or the trysail can also be set with the helm lashed less to windward. In heavy winds, the staysail (reefed or whole) can be backed, and the trysail set, but this usually results in a position too far off the wind for comfort (in Orbit). Different boats heave-to differently.

Jib:

Forward-most (on Orbit), triangular sail. Hauled up to the top of the foremast, then out to the end of the bowsprit.

Mainsail:

Large sail set on the mainmast (aft-most sail on Orbit)..

 

 

Staysail (or Jumbo, or Club-Footed Jib):

On Orbit, the second triangular sail from the bow. Set on a stay (forestay) from the foremast to the deck. Has a set of reef points to allow it to be used as a storm jib. Has a boom so that it is self-tacking.